Western Civilization

| August 27, 2015

Western Civilization

Q1). The Later Middle Ages was a time of dramatic changes which swept through Europe. (a) Explain the relationship between the Crusades, the development of trade, the rise of middle class, and the growth of national monarchies and national states. (b) Show one way in which the development of trade during the Later Middle Ages influenced each of the following in Europe: (1) government, (2) learning, (3) occupations, (4) standard living. (c) What were the long-term effects of the Black Death?

Q2). The Protestant Reformation weakened the power of the Catholic Church and divided Europe into competing Christian sects. a) How did the theology and practices of Lutheranism and Calvinism differ from that of the Catholic Church? b) Compare and contrast the attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social order. c) Describe and analyze the ways in which the sixteenth-century Roman Catholics defended their faith against the Protestant Reformation.

Q3). a) Describe the changes in artistic techniques that begun in Italy during the Renaissance (painting, sculpting, etc.) b) Discuss the impact two of the following artists had on the science of perspective: Brunelleschi, Mantegna, Uccello, Masaccio. c) How did the Renaissance art embody the principles and ideas of the italian Humanists? d). In what ways were Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael pioneers? e) How did the Early Renaissance differ from the High Renaissance? Describe three major works of art from the High Renaissance in detail.

Q4). What was the impact of the Hundred Years’ War on England, France and Western Europe? How does the life, career and death of Joan of Arc both exemplify late Medieval religious culture (mystical visions, witchcraft trials), and yet defy the customs of the day (class, gender?). What were the social, religious, and economic effects of Black Death?

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