| August 21, 2015


Please read the assignment below and add more information to any part of this assignment, you can choose one paragraph from the assignment.


Normal Electrolyte Homeostasis

Water is the most abundant compound of human the body. Water is 80% of body weight in newborns, 60% in adult males, and 50% in adult females. Body fluids consist basically of electrolytes and water. An electrolyte is a substance that creates an electrical charge when dissolved in water. The electrolytes include sodium Na, potassium K, calcium Ca, chloride Cl, and bicarbonate HCO3- Expand annotation(Andrews,n.d).  Fluid and electrolyte balance is required for normal operations of the body. Otherwise, dehydration, over hydration, and electrolyte imbalance occur, and the imbalances are life-threatening.

Fluid and electrolyte imbalances result to several medical conditions. They include renal failure, gastrointestinal problems, Hypovolemic Shock in Trauma, brain injuries, congestive heart failure, acute Pancreatitis, Cirrhosis with Ascites and even pregnancy specific problems. The imbalances affect children and the elderly differently Expand annotation .

Sodium imbalance is a major electrolyte imbalance in the body. The condition is called hypernatremia, where blood sodium is more than 145 mEq/L. It is characterized by a relative deficit of water to salt in extracellular fluid. The causes include overuse of salt tablets, dehydration, and prolonged diarrhea. Hyponatremia is when blood sodium is less than 136 mEq/L. It results when there is relatively too much water in the extracellular fluid for the amount of sodium present. Causes include excessive secretion of any diuretic hormone, massive infusion of sodium-free IV solution, burns, and prolonged use of certain diuretics. Symptoms of both hyper and hyponatremia are related to CNS malfunction and include a headache, confusion, seizures, and coma .

Na Balance

Potassium imbalance is another major electrolyte imbalance. The condition is known as hyperkalemia when the blood potassium is more than 5.1 mEq/L, and hypokalemia when the potassium is less than 3.8 mEq/L. Hyperkalemia causes include increased intake, the shift of potassium from Intracellular Fluid (ICF) to blood caused by burns and tissue trauma, and renal failure. Clinical signs of hyperkalemia are related to muscle malfunction and include skeletal muscle weakness, paralysis, and cardiac arrest. Causes of Hypokalemia include fasting, abuse of laxatives and certain diuretics, diets low in potassium, diarrhea, gastric suction, and vomiting. Clinical signs of hypokalemia include slow rate of passage of GI contents, and smooth muscle weakness causing abdominal distention .

Calcium imbalance too is a major electrolyte imbalance. Hypocalcaemia occurs when blood calcium levels exceed 10.5 mg/dL. Causes include excessive input, shifts of calcium from bone to ECF, increased absorption, Paget disease, and other bone tumors, and hyperparathyroidism. Clinical signs of Hypocalcaemia are related to decreased neuromuscular activity, including muscle weakness, fatigue, diminished reflexes, and cardiac problems. Hypocalcaemia occurs when blood calcium level is less than 8.4 mg/dL. Hypocalcaemia is caused by dietary deficiency, decreased absorption or availability, pancreatitis, increased excretion, hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia and rickets, and renal insufficiency. Clinical signs are related to increased neuromuscular irritability that include muscle twitching, cramping, hyperactive reflexes, and abnormal cardiac rhythms .

Dear writer

Please you are required to collaborate with the article . This can take the form of additional information,

a correction or even an annotation (minimum 2 works( topics).

You are required to collaborate with the article. This can take the form of additional information,

a correction or even an annotation (minimum 2 works( topics).


Atenolol in a selective b blocker used in many disorders especially hypertension, CHF and

certain arrythmias. its main side effects are hypotension, erectile dysfuction etc etc etc etc

Nasir (EDIT) the important point about the long term use of atenolol is its association with

sudden death syndrome after when patient abruptly stop taking atenolol. this effect is related to

its upregulation receptor mechanis bla bla (reference)

Second example :if i wrote  an article about Adrenalin usage and i mentioned that we use

adrenaline in cardiac arrest. and i finish my article

when u read the article and when u read the article u found there are missing information about

adrenalin usage that did not mention. then u will say.

we use adrenaline also for anaphylaxis and chronic asthma also u will mention the adrenaline


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